Making Transactions

Regardless of how you are using ape, you will likely be making transactions. There are various types of transactions you can make with ape. A simple example is deploying a contract.


Deploying a smart contract is a unique type of transaction where we don’t necessarily care about the receipt as much as we care about the contract instance. That is why the return value from the deploy method is a ContractInstance.

The following example demonstrates a simple deployment script:

from ape import accounts, project

def deploy():
    account = accounts.load("MyAccount")
    return account.deploy(project.MyContract)

Dynamic-Fee Transactions

Before EIP-1559, all transactions used a gas_price. After the London fork of Ethereum, the gas_price got broken up into two values, max_fee and max_priority_fee. The ape framework supports both types of transactions. By default, transactions use the dynamic-fee model. Making contract calls without specifying any additional kwargs will use a dynamic-fee transaction.

Calling certain methods on a deployed-contract is one way to transact.

contract = deploy()  # Example from above, that returns a contract instance.
contract.fundMyContract(value="1 gwei", sender=sender)  # Assuming there is a method named 'fundMyContract' on MyContract.

In the example above, the call to fundMyContract() invokes a dynamic-fee transaction. To have more control of the fee-values, you can specify the max_fee, the max_priority_fee, or both.

contract.fundMyContract(value="1 gwei", max_priority_fee="50 gwei", max_fee="100 gwei", sender=sender)

The max_priority_fee cannot exceed the max_fee, as the max_fee includes both the base fee and the priority fee. The max_priority_fee, when omitted, defaults to the return value from the ProviderAPI.priority_fee method property. The max_fee, when omitted, defaults to the priority_fee (which gets its default applied beforehand) plus the latest the value returned from the ProviderAPI.base_fee method property.

Static-Fee Transactions

Static-fee transactions are the transactions that Ethereum used before the London-fork (before EIP-1559). However, some applications may still require using static-fee transactions.

One way to use a static-fee transaction is by specifying the gas_price as a key-value argument:

contract.fundMyContract(value="1 gwei", gas_price="100 gwei", sender=sender)

NOTE: Miners prioritize static-fee transactions based on the highest gas_price.

Another way to use a static-fee transaction (without having to provide gas_price) is to set the key-value argument type equal to 0x00.

contract.fundMyContract(value="1 gwei", type="0x0", sender=sender)

When declaring type="0x0" and not specifying a gas_price, the gas_price gets set using the provider’s estimation.

Transaction Logs

To get logs that occurred during a transaction, you can use the ContractEvent.from_receipt(receipt) and access your data from the ContractLog objects that it returns.

The following is an example demonstrating how to access logs from an instance of a contract:

receipt = contract.fundMyContract(value="1 gwei", type="0x0", sender=sender)
for log in contract.MyFundEvent.from_receipt(receipt):
    print(log.amount)  # Assuming 'amount' is a property on the event.

You can also access the logs from the receipt itself if you know the ABI:

event_type = contract.MyEvent
for log in receipt.decode_logs(event_type.abi):
    print(log.amount)  # Assuming 'amount' is a property on the event.

Transaction Acceptance Timeout

NOTE For longer running scripts, you may need to increase the transaction acceptance timeout. The default value is 2 minutes. In your ape-config.yaml file, add the following:

transaction_acceptance_timeout: 600  # 5 minutes